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Chapter 3
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Chapter 3
Contributed by LWin14096766c1
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As I intimated in the preceding chap­ter, we reached New Orleans on Sun­day morning; but when I came to survey the town more leisurely, I could scarcely believe it was the Lord's day. I remembered that frequently on our passage I had heard it remarked that the time varied with the time in England a few hours, and for a moment I supposed that the Sabbath varied also. The reader will perceive the cause of my surprise, when he is told that the shops were every where open, stalls set out in all directions, and the streets thronged with lookers-on more in the manner of a fair than a Christian Sabbath. This I was told was the general method of spending that day in New Orleans. With regard to the inhabi­tants, their appearance was exceedingly pe­culiar, their complexions varying almost as much as their features; from the deep black of the flat-nosed negro to the sickly pale hue of the American shopman. This city is a regular rendezvous for merchants and trades­men of every kind, from all quarters of the globe. Slavery is here tolerated in its gross­est forms. I observed several groups of
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slaves linked together in chains, and driven about the streets like oxen under the yoke. The river, which is of immense width, affords a sight not less unique than the city. No one, except eye-witnesses, can form an ade­quate idea of the number and variety of ves­sels there collected, and lining the river for miles in length. New Orleans being the pro­vision market for the West Indies and some of the Southern States, its port is frequented not merely by foreign traders, but by thou­sands of small craft, often of the rudest con­struction, on which the settlers in the inte­rior bring down the various produce of their climate and industry.1 The town itself, from its low marshy situation, is very unhealthy; the yellow fever is an everlasting scourge to its inhabitants, annually carrying off great num­bers. As a trading port, New Orleans is the most famous and the best situated of any in America; but whoever values a comfortable
1The flatboat commerce by which the surplus prod­uce of the upper Mississippi Valley was brought to New Orleans flourished for a generation or more, until the era of railroad construction which immediately pre­ceded the Civil War. An Illinois youth of recent adop­tion who made the long journey to New Orleans the year preceding Mrs. Burlend's arrival in America bore the name of Abraham Lincoln. The journey he made was typical of thousands of similar ones performed in the period here alluded to.
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climate or a healthy situation, will not, I am sure, choose to reside there.
But to resume my narrative: having ar­rived at the port, it was our intention to pro­ceed immediately up the river to St. Louis; but as no steam vessel left till the next day, we remained on board in front of the town. The custom-house officers had not yet been on board to examine the ship, but as we had nothing for which duty would be required, our captain gave my husband a document to present to the inspectors, by which we were allowed to pass early the next morning. Be­fore entering the steam vessiel, we got the remainder of our money, all in English sov­ereigns, exchanged into American dollars. We found that our expenses, since leaving home, amounted to about twenty-three pounds. On leaving the ship I felt a renewal of my home-sickness, to use a quaint expres­sion; it seemed to be the only remaining link between me and England. I was now going to be an alien among strangers. Hitherto I had been accompanied by persons, who when my pain on leaving home manifested itself, could sympathize with me. I should have preferred the meanest passenger on the ship to any I saw on the packet. As, however, we were all in haste to be on our way, I had little time to spend on those tender associations.
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I certainly left the ship with an aching heart; the captain and cabin passengers had been very kind to us during the voyage, and on going away my children were severally pre­sented with small tokens of approbation, of which they were not a little proud.
I must now leave the ship to pursue my route up the stream of the Mississippi to St. Louis, a distance of not less than thirteen hundred miles. The country on each side of the river is of a dead level, but to all appear­ance exceedingly productive, and cultivated with considerable pains. On account of the heat which prevails in these districts, the productions of tropical regions are here grown in great abundance. The extensive plantations, notwithstanding their flat ap­pearance, are exceedingly beautiful; and if any thing could have made me forget that I was an unsettled exile, the scenery of the country bordering this river must have done it. There was, nevertheless, one drawback: these beautiful plantations are cultivated by slaves, many of whom we saw as we passed along. As we had regularly to stop by the way to obtain timber for our fires, that being the fuel invariably used by the steamers on this river, we had frequent opportunities of stepping ashore. On one occasion a passen­ger seeing a negro smoking his pipe by his
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little cabin, which was just at hand, took the liberty of going up to him for the purpose of begging a little fruit, which hung in plenty on the trees around. The negro, without hesitation, granted his request; and our hero immediately mounted a tree, which he par­tially stripped of its juicy burden. This little incident might have passed unnoticed, had not the intruder on descending from the tree made use of a kind of box, which was under­neath, to break his fall; its structure was too slender for so unusual a load, and in conse-, quence he burst in the top to the terror of the negro, who immediately darted across the orchard, leaving our companion to make the best of his misfortune. The latter was soon convinced that he had committed a blunder, as the box was a bee-hive, and its occupants, aware they had been insulted, would accept no apology, but drawing their sabres at­tacked their foe with tremendous fury. Poor Yankee was no Leonidas; but with all the speed his heels could muster betook himself to the packet, where he was greeted with roars of laughter by his less enterprising as­sociates.
As we proceeded up the river the country assumed a more rude and uncultivated ap­pearance: the date and plantain tree of the lower regions were exchanged for majestic
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forest trees and untrodden wilds. Further down it was delightfully pleasant; here mag­nificently grand eternal forests, in appear­ance as interminable as the universe, with here and there a patch of ground rudely cul­tivated by the hand of a lonely settler, con­stitute the scenery for thousands of miles contiguous to this matchless stream. As to the river itself, I shall not attempt a descrip­tion of it; what has already been said proves its magnitude to be immensely great; even some of its branches, as the Ohio and the Missouri, are to be classed among the largest rivers in the world. The former1 is noted for being very muddy, and hurrying in its un­governable career vast quantities of floating timber, which, decayed by age or other causes, fall into it so as often to render it dangerous for the steamers to pass along. Of these the Mississippi contains acres, that coming from above, have in the lapse of years gradually settled together in places where the current is least active.
Proceeding with my narrative, I must con­fess I liked the packet much better than I expected. We had engaged to find our own provisions, but on account of their cheap­ness, or partly because I acted the part of
'The river here alluded to is obviously the Missouri, rather than the Ohio.
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matron to such as needed my assistance, we were frequently presented with young fowls, coffee, rice, &c., so that our food cost us very little on the river. During this transit we obtained considerable information respect­ing Illinois, which tended in some degree to lessen our disquietude. We were neverthe­less very far from being at ease; our unset­tled condition was ever the uppermost in our thoughts, and shed a settled gravity over our conduct. Whilst thus the subjects of painful uncertainty, we were one night much alarmed by the following attempt to rob us: my husband and I were in our berths; I was fast asleep, but he was awake, musing upon our situation, when a black man, one of the crew, knowing we were going to settle in the country, and thinking no doubt we should have money with us, came to the side of our berths and began to search under my pillow, so softly indeed as not to awake me; he was going to examine under my husband's like­wise, but as he was awake, he told him he could get him anything he wanted; such un­expected kindness was immediately under­stood, and the villain disappeared in a mo­ment. Although this attempt proved a com­plete failure, we were induced to give up our money to the captain the following day, which he kept till we arrived at St. Louis.
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As my husband kept the money under his pillow, I have never looked back on this cir­cumstance but with feelings of gratitude to Almighty God for his protecting providence, for had he succeeded, we should have been in a most miserable situation, not even able to reach the end of our journey;—destitute and penniless in a strange land, without friends and without home.
The time occupied in passing from New Orleans to St. Louis was about twelve days. We reached the latter place about noon, and found another steamer ready to convey us forward to the situation at which we pur­posed to remain. I had little opportunity of surveying the town, and therefore can say little respecting it; but was somewhat sur­prised to find that this noted city should be built principally of wood; its situation is not the most eligible as it regards health, being near the confluence of the Missouri and the Illinois. It is however on that very account likely to become a large and wealthy city, and is indeed by some described as such already.1 On entering the second steamer I found I had made a poor exchange; the
1 Although St. Louis dates from 1764, the increase in population was extremely slow for several decades. Upon incorporation as a city in 1823, there were only a few hundred inhabitants. By 1830, the year prior to

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weather was beginning to feel uncommonly chill, and our accommodation was here very inferior, so that we felt exceedingly anxious to be at our journey's end.
The place at which we intended to leave the river was not more than one hundred and twenty miles from St. Louis; we therefore comforted ourselves with the idea that we should soon be there. We were finally to dis­embark at Phillip's Ferry, according to the directions sent by the aforementioned Mr. B. to his brother. We should then be within two miles of his residence. Mr. B., therefore, and Phillip's Ferry, occupied our thoughts almost to the exclusion of every other sub­ject. We had already travelled nearly seven thousand miles. Our food had been princi­pally dried provisions. For many long weeks we had been oppressed with anxious sus­pense; there is therefore no cause for wonder, that, jaded and worn out as we were, we felt anxious to be at our destined situation. Our enquiries of the sailors 'how much further we had to go,' almost exhausted their pa­tience. Already we had been on the vessel twenty-four hours, when just at nightfall the
Mrs. Burlend's visit, the number had increased to almost 5,000. One hundred years later (1930) the U. S. census revealed a population of 821,960, amply fulfilling the forecast of the humble English immigrant of 1831.
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packet stopped: a little boat was lowered into the water, and we were invited to collect our luggage and descend into it, as we were at Phillip's Ferry;1 we were utterly con­founded: there was no appearance of a land­ing place, no luggage yard, nor even a build­ing of any kind within sight; we, however,
'Philips Ferry is still conducted, on or near the origi­nal site, at Valley City, where the present Editor util­ized it late in the month of August, 1936. The ferry was established by Garret Van Dusen in 1822, who two years later transferred it to Nimrod Philips.
The latter had come from Kentucky to Pike County about 1821; he died here a decade later. By his will, made in 1826, he bequeathed the ferry to his son, Andrew. This document, still on file in the Court House at Pittsfield, we copy in full for the entertain­ment of the reader:
"Illinois pike County in the name of God Amen I Nimrod Philips of the State and County aforesaid inten to travel and Not knowing but I may die be­fore I return do make this my last will and testa­ment first I give to Zerrelda Jean my youngest child five head of Cattle a cow cald Cherry and her Caves a horse Cald Jack three beds and furniture and all the kitchen furniture and utensils this I give to my youngest child by Nancy Philips onst Nancy Norris Zerrelda Jean Philips is her name I give to Nancy Philips my wife one loom and its furniture 3 breeding Sows and their pigs six bar­rows for her meat She is to have her choise of the above named Hoggs She is to live where I now live at the ferry My part of the crop of corn that has been on the place this year to be hers
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attended to our directions, and in a few min­utes saw ourselves standing by the brink of the river, bordered by a dark wood, with no one near to notice us or tell us where we might procure accommodation or find har­bour. This happened, as before intimated, as the evening shades were rapidly settling on the earth, and the stars through the clear blue atmosphere were beginning to twinkle. It was in the middle of November, and already very frosty. My husband and I looked at each other till we burst into tears, and our children observing our disquietude began to cry bitterly. Is this America, thought I, is this the reception I meet with after my long, painfully anxious and bereav­ing voyage? In vain did we look around us, hoping to see a light in some distant cabin. It was not, however, the time to weep: my husband determined to leave us with our luggage in search of a habitation, and
She is to live on the place until Zerrelda is of age and have the benefit of the improved land Zerrelda is to have six dolers for 3 years Scholling 18 dollers
I give to Elizabeth Elledge my oldest daughter one doller the rest of my estate and property is to be equaly divided between my 3 children Andrew Philips, Selah Philips, Asa Philips except Andrew is to have the ferry this is my last will and testa­ment
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wished us to remain where we then stood till he returned. Such a. step I saw to be necessary, but how trying! Should he lose himself in the wood, thought I, what will become of me and my helpless offspring? He departed: I was left with five young children, the youngest at my breast. When I survey this portion of my history, it looks more like fiction than reality; yet it is the precise situation in which I was then placed.
After my husband was gone I caused my four eldest children to sit together on one of our beds, covered them from the cold as well as I could, and endeavoured to pacify them. I then knelt down on the bare ground, and committed myself and little ones to the Father of mercies, beseeching him 'to be a lantern to my feet, a light unto my path, and to establish my goings.' I rose from my knees considerably comforted, and endeav­oured to wait with patience the return of my husband. Above me was the chill blue can­opy of heaven, a wide river before me, and a dark wood behind. The first sound we heard was that of two dogs that came bark­ing towards us, so as greatly to increase our alarm; the dogs came up to us, but did us no harm, and very soon after I beheld my dear husband, accompanied by a stranger, who

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conducted us to his habitation, whither our luggage was shortly afterwards removed in a waggon.
My husband had followed a sort of cattle track, which led him to the house, which had been concealed by trees and underwood growing around it. And now, for the first time in my lifej did I fairly see the interior of a log-house, which, however rude I might think it, I felt, as the reader will readily be­lieve, most happy to enter. It was much more comfortable to sleep on a bed laid on the floor before a fire of glowing embers, than it would have been on the cold ground, which a short time before I feared would be my lodging. The following morning, after a comfortable night's repose, we felt our health and spirits improved. My husband began to examine the soils and produce of the coun­try, and I to collect what information I could respecting American housewifery, manners, religion, &c. Our hostess was a little woman, exceedingly fond of smoking, as the Ameri­cans generally are, particularly the females. Before leaving England I had heard a great deal said in behalf of American hospitality, but these encomiums certainly require to be qualified: they are exceedingly hospitable to gentlemen who may be making a tour, likewise amongst themselves as neighbours;
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but when they know a person really must trouble them, they appear to be aware they are conferring a favour, and expect an equiv­alent. The little lady I have been describing knew little of generosity; we understood very soon that we should be expected to pay for our harbour, although we used our own pro­visions. I am forgetting that on one occa­sion she generously told me I might give my children the broth in which she had boiled some cabbage, if I thought they would drink it; I told her they had not been accustomed to such fare. We remained here three days, during which I became tolerably conversant in the theory of American housekeeping, and as Mrs. Phillips1 (that was the name of our hostess) was very loquacious, she in­itiated me into the peculiarities of Illinois politeness. No person, however slender his pretensions to knighthood, or how long so­ever the time since his small-clothes were new, is addressed without the courteous
'The will of Nimrod Philips seems to indicate that the Mrs. Philips whom Mrs. Burlend knew was a second wife of Nimrod, whose maiden name was Nancy Nor-ris. Of her we have learned nothing apart from the vivacious picture limned by our author. An earlier wife of Philips who was a member of the Elledge family in­termarried with the Boones, and on coming to Illinois settled in Scott County on the east side of the Illinois River from Pike.
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epithet of 'Sir;' and this practice is ob­served by the members of the same family in their intercourse with each other; of course the females are in like manner hon­oured with 'Madam,' Ubi tu Caius, ego Caia. It is not etiquette in Illinois to sit at the table after you have done eating; to remain after you have finished your meal implies that you have not had sufficient. This custom I subsequently found a very convenient one.
But I am forgetting the house. It was a fair specimen of a log-house, and therefore a description of it will give the reader a pretty correct idea of the American peasantry. There were two rooms, both on the ground floor, separated from each other with boards so badly joined, that crevices were in many places observable. The rooms were nearly square, and might contain from thirty to forty square yards each; beneath one of the rooms was a cellar, the floor and sides of which were mud and clay, as left when first dug out; the walls of the house consisted of layers of strong blocks of timber, roughly squared and notched into each other at the corners; the joints filled up with clay. The house had two doors, one of which is always closed in winter, and open in summer to cause a draught. The fire was on the floor at
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the end of the building, where a very gro­tesque chimney had been constructed of stones gathered out of the land, and walled together with clay and mud instead of ce­ment. It was necessarily a great width, to prevent the fire from communicating with the building. The house was covered with oak shingles; that is to say, thin riven boards nailed upon each other, so as just to over-reach. The floors of the house were covered with the same material, except a large piece near the fire, which was paved with small stones, also gathered from the land. There was no window to the house I am describing, although many log-houses may now be found having glass windows. This inconvenience I pointed out to my host­ess, who replied, 'upon the whole it was as well without, for in winter the house was warmer and in summer they had always the door open, which was better than any win­dow.' It is in reality true, that the want of light is felt very little in a log-house; in winter they are obliged to keep fine blazing fires, which, in addition to the light ob­tained from their low wide chimneys, enable the inmates to perform any business that is requisite.
It is however by no means to be under­stood that an American log house equals in
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comfort and convenience a snug English cot­tage. It is quite common to see, at least, one bed in the same room as that in which the fire is kept; a practice which invariably gives both the bed and house a filthy appearance. There was no chamber, only a sort of loft, constructed rather with a view to make the house warmer, than to afford additional room. Adjoining one side were a few boards nailed together in the form of a table, and supported principally by the timber in the wall. This was dignified with the name 'side­board.' In the centre of the room, stood another small table, covered with a piece of coarse brown calico; this was the dining table. The chairs, four in number, were the most respectable furniture in the house, hav­ing bark of ichory platted for bottoms. Be­sides these there were two stools and a bench for common use,—a candlestick made from an ear of Indian corn, two or three trenchers and a few tin drinking vessels. One corner of the house was occupied with agricultural im­plements, consisting of large hoes, axes, &c., for stubbing, called in America grubbing, flails and wooden forks, all exhibiting speci­mens of workmanship rather homely. Vari­ous herbs were suspended from the roof with a view of being medicinally serviceable, also two guns, one of them a rifle. There were
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also several hams and sides of bacon, smoked almost till they were black; two or three pieces of beef, &c. Under one of the beds were three or four large pots filled with honey, of which Mrs. P. was not a little lav­ish, as she used it to every meal along with coffee. The furniture in the other room con­sisted of two beds and a hand-loom, with which the family wove the greater part of their own clothes. In the cellar I observed two or three large hewn tubs, full of lard, and a lump of tobacco, the produce of their own land, in appearance sufficient to serve an ordinary smoker his life.
During our sojourn at Mr. Phillips', my husband found Mr. B., and on the third day after our arrival, brought that gentleman's team, two stiff oxen yoked to a clumsy sledge; on which we placed our beds, boxes, &c. and bid good by to Mrs. P., who, as we paid her for our harbour, contrived to shed a tear or two at the thoughts of parting. After arriving at Mr. B.'s house, I certainly felt I had been a little cajoled. My husband had seen him the day before, but had made no mention of his condition. He was in the fields when we arrived; but as the door was unlocked, or rather lockless, we took the liberty of introducing ourselves and luggage. Mr. B. was at once a bachelor and solitaire.

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He had left England precipitately, and what is more unusual, a great part of his money, which at this time he was daily expecting by a remittance. The property he had taken with him was all expended in land and cattle, so that a little money was a desideratum. Shortly after our arrival, Mr. B. made his appearance, which, as I before intimated, was rather mysterious. In his letters sent to England, he had spoken of his situation as 'a land flowing with milk and honey'; but I assure you patient reader, his appearance would have led any one to suppose that he gathered his honey rather from thorns than flowers. He was verily as ragged as a sheep: too much so for decency to describe. And his house was more like the cell of a hermit who aims at super-excellence by enduring privations than the cottage of an industrious peasant. The bed on which he slept was only like a bolster which he had used on ship­board, and laid upon a kind of shelf of his own constructing. Then again the walls of his house were of hewn timber as others, but the joinings or interstices were left quite open. The first night I passed in this miser­able abode I was almost perished. My hus­band was obliged to heat a flat iron, and after wrapping it in flannel, apply it to my feet, so little were we protected from the
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inclemency of the weather. Finding our com­forts here so few, we determined to have a home of our own as soon as possible. Mr. B. was too busy in his farm to render my hus­band much assistance in selecting a piece of ground. Besides the condition of his haut-de-chausse1 rendered it almost imperative upon him to keep near home, especially as he was a bachelor.
Before I proceed any further with my nar­rative, perhaps it will be of advantage to the reader to explain the method of purchasing land in the United States. The land in the various states has all been surveyed by direc­tion of the government, and divided into portions of eighty acres each. For the sale of the land thus surveyed and laid down on large plans, a land-office is established in various central situations, where all the allotments of a certain district are sold, and the purchasers' names registered. Any per­son, therefore, who wishes to purchase one or more of these subsections, can see the plan, and select any that are unsold. They will even sell as small a quantity as forty acres; but as they do this merely to accom­modate new settlers, no person already pos­sessing eighty acres, can purchase a smaller quantity than that at a time. In some of the 1 Meaning, his trousers.

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older states the government lands are all sold off. It must there be bought of private owners; but in Illinois and other new states there is plenty unsold. The government price everywhere is one hundred dollars for eighty acres. As there are myriads of acres yet in its native luxuriant wildness, any per­son may with impunity cultivate as much as he chooses without paying anything; and, as a further inducement, when a person be­gins thus to cultivate, no other person can legally purchase that land, till four years have expired from the time of his beginning to cultivate. By obtaining what is termed a pre-emption the improvement arising from his own industry is as secure to him for four years as if he was the actual owner. Should, however, he fail to pay for the land before the term expires, an indifferent per­son may then purchase it; but this seldom happens. Every person purchasing land at the office, must declare upon oath, if re­quired, that no other party has an improve­ment on it. And, if it be proved to be other­wise, such purchase is in every case invalid; and the fraudulent party liable to a heavy fine.
An improved eighty acres was the first land we purchased: we obtained it in the following manner:—A person named Mr.
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Oakes1 having heard that a family about to settle was sojourning at Mr. B.'s came to invite my husband to buy some venison, which he had killed with his rifle just before. My husband went with him, and in conver­sation found he was disposed to sell his im­provement right; for the four years were not expired, and he had not entered it at the land office. For this right he wanted sixty dollars. My husband told him he would call upon him the next day, and returned to Mr. B.'s after buying a quantity of nice venison at a halfpenny per pound. The following day, my husband and I visited at Mr. Oakes's, who took us round the estate,
1 There were, commonly, three waves of migration in the settlement of any given portion of the frontier. First of all came the traders, hunters, and trappers, with no particular intention of improving the country. Second came the "squatters," who occupied (without troubling to buy legal title) a tract of land and made some slight improvements on it, frequently building a cabin and reducing one or more acres to cultivation, but relying largely upon hunting and on the natural products of the forest for their support. In the wake of the squatter came the permanent settler, who acquired legal title to the soil and developed a home with the in­tention of passing it on to his children. Oakes, the individual here noted, was evidently a squatter, who has left no record of his sojourn in the community. Of him and his kind, Mr. Jess M. Thompson, local his­torian, observes, "All seem to have vanished from the community at an early day."
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shewed us the boundaries, which were marked out by large stones set at each cor­ner, termed the corner stones.
On the land there were about four hun­dred sugar maples which Mr. Oakes had tapped the preceding year. These trees grow plentifully in the United States, and promise with proper culture to supersede the use of West Indian sugar in America. They like a low situation and a deep soil, and grow to a larger size than any trees in this country. They are said to thrive the better the oftener they are pierced. The method of obtaining sugar from them is very simple. A small cabin, or, as it is there termed, camp, is built in the midst of the trees; two or three large coppers, holding from five to ten gallons each, are set within it, to boil the liquor, which being drained from the trees into hewn wooden troughs, is carried into the camp. The incisions are made with an auger in the beginning of March, when the sap is beginning to rise. Into each of these holes a tube is inserted, about an inch in diameter, so as just to fill the hole, through this the liquor flows as through a spout. The tree from which these tubes are made, is admi­rably adapted for the purpose, growing somewhat like the elder, only its branches are straighter and contain more pith. It is
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usually called in Illinois the shoemaker's tree,1 its botanical name I do not know. The most suitable weather for the discharge of this liquor is when the days are fine and the nights frosty. After the liquor is thus collected, it is boiled down to the consistency of thin treacle. It is then strained through a coarse woollen cloth, and afterwards boiled again at a slower fire till it becomes hard and firm like raw sugar. It is at present much used in the United States, and always sells at a higher rate than that from the West Indies. On the land now under considera­tion, Mr. Oakes had broken up about twelve acres, three of which were sown with wheat, and the remaining nine ready to be sown with Indian corn, oats, &c. the following spring. As we liked the situation and land very much and were wishful to be settled, the agreement was completed that evening, and the money paid and possession obtained the following day. The reader is aware that the sixty dollars given to Mr. Oakes, were only for his house, improvement right, sugar-making utensils, &c. One hundred more we paid at the land office, at Quincy, and we ob­tained the usual certificate or title deeds; and thus by the first of December, having spent
Apparently the co-author of Mrs. Burlend's narra­tive nodded here. The tree in question is the sumac.
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about thirty pounds in travelling, thirty-five more in land, &c. we were the rightful owners of a farm of eighty acres, with a log house in the centre of it.1 What more could we re­quire? The reader will perceive in the next chapter.
JThe farm which the immigrants thus obtained for their home is legally known as the northeast % of the northeast yZ, of Section 6, Twp. 5 S, R. 2 W. of the Fourth P. M. It lies about two miles east of Bethel Cemetery, and about three miles north of the village of Detroit, in northwestern Detroit Township. Three miles to the northeast lies Valley City, formerly Philips Ferry. The approach of the Burlends to the farm site was, of course, by way of Philips Ferry. The original cabin site was on the face of a sloping hillside, a few rods from a spring which still gives forth a stream of clear, cool water.
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Submitted: 02/03/08 (Edited 02/03/08)

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